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Thursday, December 29, 2016

Ukraine's Know-How Caught in East-West Tug-of-War

~~PRLog (Press Release) - Feb. 6, 2014 - WINNIPEG, Canada -- By Ihor Cap
The threat of a renewed "Cold War" and a new "Berlin Wall" that will divide Europe from Asia is near, and the Western media is underestimating the significance of this threat. The new line of divide is Ukraine. Which side of the Ukrainian border the wall is to appear will be decided by the Western world. More and more though, it appears that it will be on the Polish-Ukrainian side of the border. Should this happen, democracy as we know it and its core public values will live under a constant umbrella of fear and deception.
On November 21, 2013,the Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych has yielded to the pressure and threats from Putin's Russia. He postponed the signing of an agreement which would give the country Association status with the European Union (EU) along with many mutual economic benefits. As a result, hundreds of thousands frustrated Ukrainians hit the streets of the Ukrainian capital, the likes of which had not been seen since the Orange Revolution in 2004. They feel they are being sold out by the Ukrainian President, in spite of overwhelming public support favoring an alliance with the EU. Meanwhile, Putin is bullying Ukraine to join his Customs Union or Eurasian Union. The latter Unions are beginning to resemble a 21st century prototype of the Triple Alliance reminiscent of Nazi Germany, except today instead of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan we have Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. It's a cause of anxiety for the Ukrainian people, for Artur Sakunts, the Chairman of "Helsinki Citizens' Assembly Vanadzor" (see AlRagir am, October 28, 2013),and for the Canadian Group for Democracy in Ukraine.
The Russian bear is hungry and getting bolder still. It needs a passive and obedient Ukraine, a Europe that is confused and fearful, and a North American continent that is mollified by song and dance. The Canadian Group for Democracy in Ukraine is much concerned about this part of the world because the sum of these authoritarian countries with Ukraine will pose a serious challenge to the security of Europe and NATO aligned countries.
While many people are familiar with the stereotypical images of Ukrainian cuisine and high kicking folk dances, fewer people are aware that Ukraine was the world's 3rd nuclear power, it was the main source of Soviet scientific achievements, and is currently a top 10 world's arms suppliers of the menacing Ukrainian made T-64BM Bulat tanks, BM-30 Smerch ( heavy multiple rocket launchers (, the world's largest transport aircraft, and a variety of other effective surface-to-air ( missile systems and anti-aircraft ( missile and artillery ( complexes. Antonov (, KMDB, Malyshev Factory (, RPC Fort (, Yuzhmash (, and the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau ( are the industrial engines manufacturing this complex series of hardware, weapons and other armoured fighting vehicles.
Today, Ukraine is positively contributing its technical know-how to such peaceful experimental efforts like the European Super-Collider and Sea Launch. Ukraine is a candidate, Associate member of the European Organization for Nuclear Research or CERN (with accession in progress) and is playing an important role in a variety of commercial and hybrid spacecraft launches as part of Sea Launch LLC, a joint partnership formed between The Boeing Company (40 %), RSC Energia (25 %), Kvaerner (20%), and Yuzhmash and Yuzhnoye (15 %). Ukrainian Economist Volodymyr Lanovyi points to the numerous sophisticated technical projects Ukraine is currently involved in with its French, German and English business counterparts to jointly develop complex technical-machinery and electronic production of a military nature. Even the world's largest transport aircraft (Antonov's Ruslan) has piqued the interest of NATO, and Russia knows it (see Dmytro Tuzov's interview with Volodymyr Lanovyi in Ukrainska Pravda, Dec. 23, 2013). Ukraine can continue to serve as a source of knowledge, cooperation and growth with the Western world or be swallowed into the proverbial black hole of abyss and perform the will of its future Imperial tyrants.
The next few days, months, years will be crucial. As Ukraine nears the finish line, the underlying issue is not getting the attention it needs. Our leaders are not aware of this imminent and apparent danger. Time is of the essence here. We need to ensure that democracy takes hold in Ukraine, because the Russians are doing everything in their power to make sure it does not.

Author: Ihor Cap is a Slavic Studies graduate from The University of Ottawa with a Specialization in Ukrainian Studies, and a Ph.D. graduate of The Florida State University

A One-Time Favorite Ukrainian Games Website for Learning and Fun Closes Down!

EzReklama recently removed its gaming website after a 7 years online fun. It featured a collection of free online interactive games related to Ukrainian themes, learning, and most importantly fun! Visitors to the UkrainianGames.Blogspot.Com web site engaged in any number of interactive games in English or Ukrainian completely free of charge. The content of these games was appropriate for children and adults from 8 to 88. 

Bilingual education teachers, especially elementary school teachers, used it to find a treasure chest of interactive content for the classroom that is designed to teach or reward their learners! Some schoolchildren enjoyed putting a ZAZ Ukrainian car jigsaw puzzle together. Others  chose to put together the facade of the Lviv Opera and Ballet Theatre. You selected the picture of interest and control the level of difficulty. Easy puzzle cuts contained as little as 6 pieces for children and moved up in range of difficulty to as many as 247 cuts or pieces of an image. You decided which one is appropriate for you, for your learners or your family.

Young tots enjoyed connecting the dots in the correct sequence to learn the alphabet and take delight in the animal or other image rendered in front of the computer screen upon successfully connecting the dots. Still others may have just needed to brush up on a little math work with a little help from their favorite cartoon character "Hubka Bob".

Young girls who dreamed of becoming fashion models took delight in playing dress up with the "Ukrainian Fashion Girl" from Kyiv or Kateryna from Lviv. Young boys loved the high kicking, Cossack sword wavering onscreen figure that is also endowed with special mystical powers in "Bohun's Revenge."

All in all, game players found it an attractive site that was at once captivating and neatly organized so players can quickly find their favorite game. New games were added all the time. Moms and dads joined in the fun. There were puzzles, simulations, math and logic games, matching games and so much more. DARE to be entertained! 

Farewell Ukrainian Games website. We will miss you. You can try finding these games invidually by their names by doing a website search. Good Luck!

Practical Diaper Changing Tips for New Moms and Dads

By Ihor Cap
The more diaper changes you do the better you get at it. My mother-in-law observed the speed with which I perform a diaper change and said that I have “professorial skills“. I need not tell you but that was an Olympic moment for me.
1. Check inside the baby’s diaper. There is no better way to know if the baby soiled itself than to know. So, pull back the disposable diaper from behind with one finger and have a peek inside the diaper. The smell might be a stronger indicator for a diaper change. If the diaper is heavy, then the baby most probably wet herself. For those of you who are very sensitive to smell, I found that just breathing through my mouth instead of the nose would help you through the diaper change.
2. Prepare your materials for the diaper change. It is easier to complete the diaper change process if you prepare your materials ahead of time. Then you will not find yourself scrambling for something in the middle of the diaper change process. Make sure everything is within reach.
  • You will need a garbage pail to toss out the soiled diaper.
  • A baby change table or a towel that you will use to place underneath the baby for the diaper change, baby sensitive wet wipes or moist towelettes (non-alcoholic and moisturized preferred) and baby soap and a small flannel wiping cloth next to the sink in case you encountered the jack pot, and another separate drying towel to dry the baby.
  • There is no need to wash the baby in the sink for small poops or wet diaper changes. In these cases, wet wipes will do.
  • If you encountered the mother load (and it does happen), you will need a change of clothes for the baby. 
  • Lastly, you may need skin cream. Before you put a new diaper on the baby, check for diaper rash or skin redness around the area of the bum.  If it is red, then it is a good time to spread a little skin cream on all the red areas and cracks using your fingertips. I found that Penaten Cream is a great product that takes care of this problem effectively and quickly.
3. Change the baby’s diaper. Place the baby on the baby mobile, changing pad or on top of the changing towel depending on your preference. If you use the baby mobile, then make sure you strap the baby down to prevent it from falling over. Never leave the room when using a baby mobile. The baby can still fall over the side even you fastened the baby down.  I prefer to change my baby using the towel on the bed because it provides me with a lot of room to maneuver and I do not have to worry about the baby fidgeting all the time. You can also use the floor if you wish to do the diaper change safely.
Remove the baby’s socks and sleepers, and tuck the bottom portion of the clothes behind the baby’s back so it does not get in the way of the diaper change.  Undo the fasteners on the diapers, and then slowly wipe the remaining poop with the upper portion of the diaper. Toss the diaper in the diaper bin or trash can. Remember to clean the trashcan soon after the diaper change to avoid any unpleasant smells in your room.
Then lift the baby up by the baby’s ankles in one hand and wipe the baby’s bum using wet wipes with the other hand. Make sure you wipe the creases too.
If you are cleaning a baby boy, you may want to cover his penis with a flannel cloth to prevent him from spraying you. Clean under the boy’s external pouch (the scrotum) too. You may miss something if you do not look under there.
If you are cleaning a baby girl, always make sure to wipe in a downward motion to avoid potential urinary tract infections. Wipe from the top external vaginal folds downwards toward the anus. Do not forget the inner lip folds as there may be something that got in there too. If there is something there, wipe it gently. If there is no poop in there then there is no need to wipe. Use a fresh wet wipe to go over the same areas.
Check for any rashness. Smear some Penaten Cream wherever there is redness and do not forget the creases or folds on the legs too. Get a new diaper. Again, lift the ankles up with one hand and place the fresh diaper underneath the baby using your other hand. Now adjust the diaper with both hands sliding the diaper up or down as necessary and then fasten the side tab attachments to the diaper.  For boys, make sure you place the penis in a downward position before you close the tabs to prevent any leaks later on. Do not fasten the tabs on to tight on the stomach or legs. Dress up the baby and congratulate yourself on a job well done. Now go wash your hands.
For large poop jobs, you will need to remove the baby’s clothes completely, and wipe the baby down with wet wipes. Then prepare the water tap to run on luke warm (I installed a spray aerator for this purpose) and have a flannel cloth ready with baby sensitive soap on it to wipe down the baby further.
Now carry the baby with one arm to the sink and wipe the baby down using the soap filled flannel wash cloth with the other hand. The reason for the flannel wash cloth is because the poop may be very greasy in big poop jobs and simply using a few wet wipes will not be enough to complete the job properly. 
Do not leave any soap residue on the body as it may cause skin rashes to occur later when you close up the diaper. After you finished cleaning the baby, carry it over to the drying towel (which is different from your changing towel) and pat it down softly until the baby is dry.  Check for redness. Apply cream where necessary and wrap her up! Occasionally let the baby dry out in the open to prevent diaper rash or help speed up the healing process. Wash your hands. Repeat diaper change process as needed.

Author Information:
Ihor Cap is a web author and father of two wonderful children, a boy and a girl.
For More Diapering Tips, Watch the Following Videos:
Diapering Tips Videos
How To Change A Baby's Diaper

Thursday, December 15, 2016

Cartoon Strips by EzReklama

The following cartoon strips were created at, a site that once allowed you "to create "instant comics starring you and your friends" but the site no longer exists. EzReklama used this site to create its own funnies some of which we would like to share with you here. Click Cartoon to Enlarge Image. Enjoy! 

EzReklama Cartoons at Witty Comics
(Click Cartoon to Enlarge)

EzReklama Cartoons at Storyboard That December 18, 2018
(Click Cartoon to Enlarge)

Monday, December 12, 2016

Social and Business Projects to Help Ukraine

It is not normal that I should be turning to the international community to attract people's attention to the plight of Ukraine's population whose everyday life went down the tubes because of the war, and because its government is not living up to the promises the politicians made to become elected.

It is not normal that I have to appeal to the outside world to obtain financial support for bona fide social and business projects which would give Ukrainians the necessary boost to mend the social fabric which has been destroyed by decades of communism followed by another 25 years of pilfering and economic sabotage by the corrupt anti-Ukrainian leaders who are dead set to bring down Ukraine economically, politically and culturally.

Help Center/Halfway Home  for Adult Orphans
It is not normal that I have to speak on behalf of the war veterans, the families of the killed soldiers, the adult orphans,  the now destitute people who are ready and willing to fight the consequences  of the economic collapse handed down to them by corrupt oligarchs and politicians who always act with  impunity.

It is not normal that I should be asking you to spare $1 a day for 30 days to help the holding of a radio program for war veterans, or the setting up of a help center/halfway home for adult orphans, or the repairs of a summer rehabilitation camp for war veterans and their families, and many other urgently needed projects.

Adult Orphans Help Center Project

It is not normal ... but it is a fact that without YOUR financial support none of the projects will become reality.  The government officials promise but do not deliver.  The consequences of the war made the situation even more critical.  Local Ukrainians have emptied their pockets to revive the Ukrainian army, which was dismantled by traitors.  Today, due to the steep increase of the price for facilities, and the continued devaluation of the hryvnia,  the local Ukrainians have been fleeced by the government as if to take revenge for their protests held during the Maidan of Dignity (Dec 2013 - Feb 2014).  Because Ukrainians ousted one pro-Muscovite-Russian president, declared their desire to shake off the Muscovite-Russian yoke, and to side with Europe, Muscovy-Russia has cynically invaded Ukraine in March 2014, and brought war to the Donbas in Eastern Ukraine.

Ukraine, once called the Bread Basket of Europe, has been destroyed by Muscovy-Russia through communism in the 20th Century, and nowadays through the ongoing war.  Today, Ukraine needs a helping hand to prevent despair from settling in even deeper amongst the population.   Creating social havoc is a standard tactic used by Muscovy-Russia to destabilize societies and to foment discontent, which then turns into bloody revolutions or rebellions, which need to be avoided at all costs to prevent Muscovy-Russia from gaining more terrain.

Katranka - Summer Rehab Camp for ATO War Veterans

The war veterans and the local Ukrainians need some help to give them the chance to restart their life, which has been destabilized by the enemy.  Please, do help out Ukraine by supporting the social and business projects you can learn about by visiting the following links.

Author: Lada Toptschan, Projects Coordinator. 

Friday, September 9, 2016

"The Camps" premieres -- video series about Canada's first national internment operations

For Immediate Release (9 September 2016) - Ottawa

Internees of WWI-era Mara Lake internment camp build road

A video series called "The Camps," prepared by Canadian Ukrainian film-maker and longtime UCCLA member Ryan Boyko, premiered Thursday. Illuminating the experiences of thousands of Ukrainians and other Europeans unjustly confined during Canada's first national internment operations, these short videos evocatively combine archival photographs with interviews featuring internee descendants, academics and local residents, shot on location at each of the 24 internment camp sites found across Canada. 
Commenting on this project, UCCLA's chairman, Roman Zakaluzny, said: "Decades ago, UCCLA spearheaded the campaign that led, in 2008, to the Government of Canada finally acknowledging what happened during the Great War and setting up the Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund, which has provided the resources for this commemorative and educational film series. We are very pleased to see Ryan’s finished product, as these videos will most certainly help to remind all Canadians of what the innocents who were branded as "enemy aliens" had to endure between 1914-1920, not because of any wrong they had done but only because of who they were and where they came from. On behalf of UCCLA's members and supporters, we congratulate Ryan on his achievement."
The first video in the series dealing with the Mara Lake internment camp in British Columbia can be accessed at:


The first video in the series dealing with the Mara Lake internment camp in British Columbia can be accessed at: Please like and subscribe to Armistice Films’ Youtube channel.
For more information on UCCLA, please go to: or to subscribe to our newsletters.
The Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association (L'Association ukrainienne-canadienne des droits civils) is a non-partisan, voluntary, non-profit research and educational organization committed to the articulation and promotion of the Ukrainian Canadian community's interests and to the defence of the civil liberties and human rights of Ukrainians in Canada and elsewhere.

Monday, August 15, 2016

Life is no Rose Behind the Scenes at La Vie En Rose

How I worked as a Sales Associate at La Vie en Rose Boutique

Photo by D Sharon Pruitt
Today after taking out my black and grey work clothes out of the laundry, I finally felt that it’s over.  There is nothing wrong with grey or black, and it can be fun. But if you constantly see yourself in these colors, it can really affect your mood.

I wore these colors for quite some time since I first started working at La Vie en Rose Agua boutique as a Sales Associate (SA). I finally had the courage to give my manager a notice that I’ll be leaving. That was in the last week of my final days in that job. I felt relieved and happy, so much so that I can only describe it as euphoria. I still want to believe that this job also made some of my ex co-workers miserable, but once they leave work - probably have wonderful personalities. 

In the fall of last year, I found myself in the situation of needing to make some extra money, so I started looking for a part time job. Considering other circumstances in my life, and some previous retail experience, going into Sales seemed like a reasonable solution. 
I applied to the store, where I used to shop, and liked the service and the product. I was hired the next day after I applied, and had to turn down other job options. I have to admit – a beautiful display window, a beautiful product, and a pleasant previous experience as a customer with the assistant manager were deciding factors. After all, I wasn’t looking for a new career. I was looking to make some extra money.

I came to work with my best intentions. Immediately I was told that if I SELL, I’ll get more hours. My initial training lasted for about two hours and consisted of trying on different styles of swimsuits. During that I had to tell Assistant Manager whom I would recommend these styles to. I was quickly shown how to use the register, given work manuals to read at home, and was expected to sell next time I come to work. That was it for orientation.
After reading the manuals I was encouraged by phrases like “our employees are our best and most important value”, and truly wanted to believe that this Company cared about the staff.
Later I realized that nobody got any further training. Our average sales were expected at a 100/hour, but  employee recognition was given only when your sales were above average for a significant period of time (ex. 3-6 months). Further, we were to sign a daily task sheet with our goals for the shift. My goals for a 5 hour shift would be around $500, sometimes reaching to a $950 if the store was behind on the weekly goal. Moreover, if I was one of the employees closing the store, and staying another half hour to clean, my daily goal would include $$ for the time the store was closed.

We were supposed to sell to every 2 customers out of 10 that entered the store. It was not very difficult to achieve the goal If you were the only SA on the floor or if it was an extremely busy day when customers really wanted to buy. Yes, there are some days when there is a lot of traffic, but it is extremely difficult to make a sale.  Some customers bring their family and friends to shop with them, and every “body” is counted by the traffic counter. The real trouble was when there was a very “busy” significant other (usually a male) on his phone pacing in and out of the store.
Many times I was put in the situation when the store simply didn’t have the desired styles and sizes, especially larger ones, but I was still expected to sell, which in a lot of cases would mean deceiving the customer by selling the wrong product in the wrong size, which I couldn’t do. Then, of course there are the dreaded returns, which on a slow day can put your modest achievements into the red.

The lack of training and explanation of simple rules led to a lot of micromanagement, like creating rules on the spot, and being told off in a pretty rude way depending on the mood management was in. I worked for five months – fall and winter, and only after Christmas we saw a real rush of people. I enjoyed being busy and helping customers, but other times on a slow day – the SAs would compete for the customers, steal them, fight with each other for them, and things got really ugly at times.

Every time I came to work expecting something unpleasant either with the management, colleagues or customers which created a lot of anxiety and stress in my life.  I felt that it was not worth it for a minimum wage job with no benefits, no commission, and some laughable rules that the Company has for its employees.

Photo by Quick Fix
My “favourite” rules were the following:
We were not allowed to purchase in other stores anything that our “home” store carried, and that included the missing sizes.

Another rule was that you were not allowed to purchase anything without the manager’s approval, not even using the employee discount. I worked a lot of evening shifts, when the manager was not there, and I was also not allowed to put anything on hold even though I would pay the same price as the next customer. Sometimes the sale price was lower than the price using the discount.

We were also not allowed to unwrap spare sizes of new arrivals, even though there was enough room on the racks. Later the search for the needed size in full boxes of products while your customer was waiting undressed in the fitting room turned out to be time consuming and frustrating, and often resulted in a missing item, as it was “on its way”.
 I’m not even going to mention the special visits from the regional “royalty” that caused additional undue stress and confusion amongst our staff.
 There was also the “jean Fridays” when the employees were allowed to wear colorful clothes and jeans but only for the “price” of five dollars which was donated to the “Roses of Hope Foundation”.

Nearing the end of my employment I got a couple of Saturday and Sunday’s shifts in a row. Unfortunately, we were overstaffed again and again. As the desperation to achieve the monthly budget was setting in, I realised that it was time to get out. To quit was pretty easy, as it turned out nobody really cared.   A couple of my colleagues left shortly after me, as that job took a toll on their wellbeing too.
On a positive note – I learned a lot about swimwear, female figures and what looks good on whom. I met some nice people and gained some new experience. After all, it’s an experience: good or bad.

Oh well, time to move on! Au revoir La vie en Rose!
To read more reviews by current and former employees visit

Author: Former Employee

All photos from Wikimedia Commons

File:Free Smiling In Pink Heart Sunglasses.jpg

File:A Question of Who's In Charge (9883242164).jpg, Scott A. McNichol, "A Question of Who's In Charge" (2002) in Elora, Ontario.

Friday, July 15, 2016

Youth and Education: Who needs more of what?

Author: Alyona Romaniuk, a student of the Lesya Ukrayinka Volyn' National University, Ukraine
Translated by Ihor Cap
Nowadays, alumni acutely question education: should we study further, which career to choose, or where to go following graduation? I wonder if everyone needs a higher education because right now many people who have degrees are unable to find work.  In particular, there are hundreds of lawyers, teachers, and doctors out on the market without work. Moreover, how much effort and money was expended to get this higher education. Many parents assist their children in later life to pursue a higher education, without attention to the true talents of these young people. Maybe someone prefers to paint more than teach math, and still others would be just as happy sewing something instead of memorizing physics. The lawyer’s daughter will have to go to the Faculty of Law to satisfy her father’s will even though she may prefer a career in teaching. So who really decides what we really need: our parents or we?  Often parents may use their authority (not only earned, but also authoritarian) to ensure that children receive a higher education. However, if the young person expressed other career interests, all options should be reviewed with equal attention and a decision must be taken together. It is very possible that not everyone needs a higher education because our country needs not only highly qualified specialists with degrees from prestigious schools, but also carpenters, seamstresses/tailors, drivers, and bakers. To find answers to these questions, I decided to talk to a few of this year’s graduates.
Most say that acquiring an education in our time is a necessity. In fact, it is extremely necessary in order to support yourself. However, does everyone need to study at a university?
I think that post secondary institutes (PSIs) are for those children who really want to learn something and it works for them. After all, what kind of experts will they be if they have no ability to learn...?
- Many young people who received higher education diplomas can't find a job according to their profession and leave to work in other countries “for gainful employment”. Maybe they should have gone to a vocational-technical school and become decent professionals.  Our country also needs good apprentice-workers.  Moreover, after completing their vocational training, numerous manufacturing jobs await them at the factories. The paradox is that, for some reason, the kids who study worse earlier on in life tend to adapt better in later life than those who “aced” their way through school and got used to getting everything using their “know-how” and then hope for their just reward at the end of it all. Really, would it not be simpler if we first assess our abilities, and then choose a life path? For some reason, we repeatedly hear from older people: "How can you build a family life without getting an education?" However, the ability to live as a family or to have a sense of responsibility for your relatives a higher education does not provide. Rather, it depends on the individual.  It truly depends on the young person’s character and ability to apply their theoretical knowledge.
Having conducted my small survey, I made the following conclusion. Education is important for young people and it lies within our sphere of priorities. Still, it is but one factor (and not always the major one), which helps us to fulfill our life as well as the lives of our immediate others.
Indeed, full life – is a process of continuous learning, of discovering new horizons of personal attributes, of the unexplored sides of our surroundings. So, I can say with certainty, that higher education - is a powerful, but not the only way to discovering yourself and the world around us, or for acquiring knowledge and skills for professional activity.

Source of Original Article:

Wednesday, July 6, 2016

The Never-Ending Curriculum Debate

by Ihor Cap, Ph.D.
Early Curriculum Foundations
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) prepares individuals for useful, gainful employment (Finch and Crunkilton, 1999).  TVET is not new. It dates as far back as 2000 B.C. to the first organized apprenticeship programs for scribes in Egypt.  These programs followed two training stages. In the first training stage apprentices learned to read and write ancient literature. In the second, they served as apprentice scribes under experienced scribes who were usually government workers (Roberts, 1971).
The Goals of Education
The goals of education today are very similar. They consist of two basic elements: (1) formal education, which occurs in a structured setting, and (2) informal education, which occurs outside the school setting. Deliberate planning is not a given in the latter form of schooling.    Superimposed on these elements are (1) education for life, and (2) education for earning a living (Finch and Crunkilton, 1999). 
The Historic Curricular Issue At Heart
The foregoing implies that curriculum making should encompass general-academic education as well as vocational-technical education, together representing a comprehensive array of learning activities and experiences. While most North American educators and administrators today may subscribe to these views, it has not always been that way.
History always emphasized one type of education more than the other, usually because of philosophical, economic and/or social disagreements. Most issues that arose in practice emerged from these disagreements, suggested Leighbody (1972). No educational issue has received so much debate as that of the relationship between vocational and general education (Leighbody, 1972).
A cursory survey of philosophical readings concurs with this viewpoint. It has been discussed by:
Plato –in terms of the academy’s univocal or unilateral long-term education vs the Sophists multivalent short-term education,
Spencer - in terms of objective education vs subjective education,
Mann – in terms of comprehensive education vs general education,
Eliot – in terms of liberal education vs utilitarian education,
Friere – in terms of problem-posing education vs the banking-concept of education,
Stephens – in terms of formal vs informal education,
Bruner – in terms of useful vs ornamental education, and
Dewey – in terms of education for life vs specialization in education.
Additional Observations
The underlying assumption of this historical issue typically required a choice between one type of education over the other, and upon this premise strong philosophical disagreements have arisen between those who favor vocational education and those who believe that only liberal studies are educative (Leighbody, 1972).
For example, Plato claimed to provide people for a “choice” between the worse and better life in an organized, interdependent society. Though he professed the principle of equality and specialization, he aimed at making the Guardians (the highly trained philosophic elite of the Academy) the least dependent in an organized society. The Guardians curriculum would be streamlined to approximate the truth in one vocation (to become future leaders) for which they were “naturally fitted” while the Sophists’ (professional administrators) multivalent curriculum was written-off as the inferior “choice” simply because it served the short-term educational needs of the population.
By the 19th century, Mann argued from a sociological, humanistic and perhaps an economic perspective as well when he wanted to see Pestalozzian methods applied to vocational education as part of the general education of the public. He argued that a sound and comprehensive education and training would enable a great body of citizens versus a minority of leaders to have an equal chance for earning. The tool that would produce more useful and contributing citizens to society rather than dependents would be the common school.
Eliot reintroduced the controversy of liberal versus utilitarian education. He maintained that the traditional high school curriculum was suitable for the youngster who headed for work or for college. However, understanding well that only a small minority of students would pursue a liberal college education beyond high school, he, therefore, introduced the notion of freedom in choice of studies at the college level.  Despite his well meaning intentions, Eliot instead compartmentalized education into polytechnical vocational colleges and liberal academic colleges that continue to form separatism in education.
There is a growing realization that it is increasingly difficult to compartmentalize education into general, academic or vocational-technical components. Many influential curriculum models have surfaced during the 20th century, Charters (1923) and Tyler’s (1949) amongst them, but they fall short on implementation or evaluation.  We need a comprehensive approach to curriculum making. We need an approach that prepares us for life and for work.  Oliva’s (1984) expanded model for curriculum development is illustrative of just such an approach. A very comprehensive strategy to instructional development, curriculum development and staff development is applied within a model of Supervision For Today’s Schools by highly respected authors George E. Pawlas and Peter F. Oliva (2007, ©2008). Alternately, vocational-technical educators and administrators will find comprehensive and practical planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating assistance following Finch and Crunkilton’s  (1999) effective frameworks for developing quality technical and vocational education and training programs.
Reading References
Bruner, J. S. (1960). The process of education. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. LB885 .B78 1965X
Charters, W. W. (1923). Curriculum Construction. New York: Macmillan.
Cornford, MacDonald. Francis. (1945). Plato - Author. The Republic of Plato. Translated with Introduction and Notes by F. M. Cornford. New York: Oxford University Press, 1945
Cremin, Lawrence A., ed. (1957). The Republic and the School: Horace Mann on the Education of Free Men. New York: Teachers College Press.
Dewey, John. (1916) Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. New York: MacMillan, 1916; New York: Free Press / London: Collier-Macmillan, 1944).
Finch, C. R, & Crunkilton, J. R. (1999). Curriculum development in vocational and technical education: Planning, content, and implementation (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Friere, Paulo. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. [New York] Herder and Herder, Translated by Myra Bergman Ramos. Bib ID 2528455.
Krug, A. Edward. (1961). Charles W. Eliot and Popular Education. (Classics in Education, no.8; New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers’ College, Columbia University.
Leighbody, B. Gerald. (1972). Vocational education in America's schools; major issues of the 1970's. Chicago: American Technical Society.
Oliva, F. Peter. (1984). Supervision For Today’s Schools. Second Edition, Longman Inc., New York.
Pawlas E. George and Oliva, F. Peter. (2007). Supervision for Today's Schools, 8th Edition, ISBN 978-0-470-08758-9, June 2007, ©2008.
Roberts, Roy. W. (1971). Vocational and Practical Arts Education. New York: Harper and Row.
Spencer, Herbert. (1866). Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical. New York: D. Appleton and Company. 448 & 445 Broadway.
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Author Information:
Ihor Cap, Ph.D.
Ihor Cap is a graduate of The Florida State University in Comprehensive Vocational Education and a member of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in Canada.  
This article first appeared June 26, 2010 in

Building the Canadian Mosaic: A Survey of Historical Developments 1982-2012

By Ihor Cap, Ph.D.
Subsequent legislative affirmations espoused equality between the ethnocultural majorities and ethnocultural minorities and equality of conditions for all Canadians.  Of overriding importance were The Constitution Acts 1867 to 1982, a consolidation of the Constitution Acts 1867 to 1975 and The Constitution Act, 1982.  Consolidated as of October 1, 1989, it contained various direct amendments (i.e. repeals, amended provisions, substitutions) and indirect amendments (i.e. alterations by United Kingdom Parliament, additions by Parliament of Canada, alterations by the Legislatures), spent provisions, a general procedure for amending the Constitution of Canada, and a general amendment renaming the British North America Act, 1867 to the Constitution Act, 1867 (Department of Justice Canada, 1989).
The Acts consolidated what leaders-governments-after-next historically strived to promote and  protect: basic human rights.  Canada's record of' safeguarding these rights, was divided into three periods, each moulded by a set of mechanisms specific to the time and culture of the period (Greene, 1989): first, the period, from 1867 to 1960, of contentious action or inaction on the part of the judiciary to effectively invoke or negate the existence of "an implied bill of rights" (of civil liberties principles) inherited from the U.K.'s unwritten constitution by virtue of the principle of legislative supremacy pursuant to the preamblary statement in the original Constitution Act, which reads as follows:
                                                                                                                             (29th March 1867.)            
Whereas the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick have expressed their Desire to be federally united into One Dominion under the Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with a Constitution similar in Principle to that of the United Kingdom (Department of Justice Canada, 1989, p.1);
second, the period between 1960 and 1982, in which the first Canadian Bill of Rights was born to failure because of a judiciary reluctant to negate the principle of legislative supremacy; and, third, the period, from 1982 up to the present, which interrupted the narrow judiciary actions and interpretations mindful of civil liberties associated with the first two periods in light of the form and spirit effected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.  Greene's (1989, p.38) review of the circumstances leading to the adoption of the Charter showed that it acts as the "key-instrument" in the Government's concerted nation-building strategy that evolved from 1967 to 1982:
  • to create the conditions that would encourage a stronger national identity to counteract the forces of provincialism;

  • to patriate the constitution (end the role of the U.K. Parliament in the constitutional amendment process, and provide for an entirely Canadian amending procedure); and
  • to extend language rights and to create new ‘mobility rights’ so that Canadians would feel at home in any province and would not be deterred from moving within the country (Greene, 1989, p.38).
The Constitution Act, 1982, enacted as Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982, (U.K.) 1982, c.11, contains the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, effective April 17, 1982.  The constitutionality of rights and freedoms gave the Charter supremacy over other laws and therefore were less susceptible to amendment.  In other words, its legal basis is much stronger than the first Canadian Bill of Rights (Statutes of Canada, 1960, c.44) and the Canadian Human Rights Act (Statutes of Canada, 1977, c.33). It also committed the Government, in writing, to promote and protect a  far broader range of rights and freedoms than the slim doublet (of "rights") written into Sections 93 and 133 of the Constitution Act, 1867.  Section 93 gave each province exclusive power to  enact  laws  in  relation to education, so long as nothing in any such law prejudicially affected  ". . . any Right or Privilege with respect to Denominational Schools which any Class of Persons have by Law in the Province at the Union." Section 133 provided for use of English and French languages in the Parliament and Government of Canada. These linguistic and denominational “rights” continued to be unaffected in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (See Sections 21 and 29 of the Constitution Act, 1982).  Sections 16, 20 and 23 of the Charter recognized additional rights with respect to advancement of “equality of status or use” of the official languages of Canada, communications with and services from federal institutions in such languages and, continuity of “primary and secondary school instruction in the language of the English or French linguistic minority population of a province.”
The legal or customary rights of languages other than English or French were preserved in Section 22 of the Charter.  Aboriginal, treaty or other "rights or freedoms that have been recognized by the Royal Proclamation of October 7, 1763" were not affected by the Charter (Section 25).  As far as multiculturalism was concerned, Section 27 asserted that "This Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canadians."  The Charter's provision for equality rights (Section 15, effective 1985) was an additional guarantee, in law that stated:
15. (1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.
Lastly, the federal and provincial governments were committed to (a) "promoting equal opportunities for the well”‘being of Canadians," (b) "furthering economic development to reduce disparity in opportunities," and specifically (c) "providing essential public services of reasonable quality to all Canadians," as framed in Section 36(1) of the Charter.
To these ends, the Parliamentary Task Force on Participation of Visible Minorities in Canadian Society urged the federal government to consider recommendations contained in their Report and, in particular, the advisability of immediately (1) adding all visible minorities (non-whites) to the list of groups targeted for mandatory affirmative action within the public service (i.e., women, the disabled, Aboriginal peoples, and Blacks in Nova Scotia) by the Treasury Board in a  policy statement issued June 27, 1983, and (2) introducing in Parliament a Multiculturalism Act, as indicated by Government in a Speech from the Throne, December 1983 (Special Committee on Participation of Visible Minorities In Canadian Society, 1984). Soon after, the Government tabled “An act respecting multiculturalism” (Bill C-48) which died on the order paper in the House of Commons when Parliament dissolved for the 1984 election (Secretary of State of Canada, 1987, p.15).
The Employment Equity Act and Regulations, created by statute in 1986,  were major steps toward beginning nondiscriminatory rights for persons or groups disadvantaged in Canadian society.  This Act operationalized the principle that "employment equity means more than treating persons in the same way but also requires special measures and the accommodation of differences" (Statutes of Canada, 1986, c.31, s.2).  It  required federally regulated employers (with 100 or more employees) to implement programs ensuring that visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, women and the disabled achieved a degree of  representation "that is at least proportionate to their representation" in the external labour force (Statutes of Canada, 1986, c.31, s.4), and to report their results each year to the Minister, in prescribed manner (Statutes of Canada, 1986, c.31, s.6).  The same was  required of employers who bid on federal contracts of $200,000 plus under the Federal Contractors Program, established the same year (Employment and Immigration Canada, 1990, p.2).  Affirmative action programs or activities are  helped and protected by Section 15(2) of the Charter that provides a constitutional guarantee to their amelioration of conditions.
Affirmative action, in the Canadian context, is not to be confused with programs involving the establishment of  "quotas" across or in a particular sector of the economy.  Nor does it concentrate on using the complaints of individual workers as a basis for redress, as with equal opportunity or equal remuneration legislation.  It requires the cooperation of employers in "identifying and hiring or promoting or training" qualified (Gunderson, 1976) individuals who, by virtue of their group affiliation, find themselves arbitrarily and extensively excluded from the workplace (Abella, 1984).  Employment equity and contract compliance measures function from this perspective.
The Government of Canada, basing itself on the Constitution of Canada, and in light of the Canadian Human Rights Act and international agreements on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and Civil and Political Rights of individuals to which Canada is a party; bearing in mind the multicultural heritage and rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada recognized in the Charter, the provisions outlined in the Official Languages Act and equality of status to which all Canadians are entitled to under the Citizenship Act, enacted the Canadian Multiculturalism Act  of 1988 (Statutes of Canada, 1988b, c.31). Today, by and with the advice and consent of the Houses of Parliament, the Canadian Government:
recognizes the diversity of Canadians as regards race, national or ethnic origin, colour and religion as a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society and is committed to a policy of multiculturalism designed to preserve and enhance the multicultural heritage of Canadians while working to achieve the equality of all Canadians in the economic, social, cultural and political life of Canada (Statutes of Canada, 1988b, c.31, p.836).
Further, all federal institutions were directed to:
(a) ensure that Canadians of all origins have an equal opportunity to obtain employment and advancement in those institutions;
(b) promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the ability of individuals and communities of all origins to contribute to the continuing evolution of Canada;
(c) promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the understanding of and respect for the diversity of the members of Canadian society;
(d) collect statistical data in order to enable the development of policies, programs and practices that are sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of Canada;
(e) make use, as appropriate, of the language skills and cultural understanding of individuals of all origins; and
(f) generally, carry on their activities in a manner that is sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of Canada. (Statutes of Canada, 1988b, c.31, s.3.(2), pp. 838”‘839)
Here again, as in 1971, the Government escaped further opportunity to create or establish a full-fledged Ministry of Multiculturalism and an Office of the Commissioner of Multiculturalism "to ensure that the multicultural diversity of Canada is served and that the objects and principles of this Act are implemented in all the programs and services provided to members of the public and in particular are sensitive to the ethnocultural demographic particularities across the regions of Canada", as recommended by the Standing Committee on Multiculturalism (1987, p.79) in accordance with its mandate under Standing Order 96(3)(d), an examination of multicultural policy. Rather, Section 4 of the Act assigned the Minister (designated for the purposes of this Act) general responsibility for encouraging and promoting a coordinated approach to the implementation of programs and practices in support of this policy.  The approach involved consultation with organizations representing multicultural interests and the Canadian multiculturalism advisory committee (CMAC), and other Ministers of the Crown who ". . shall take such measures as the Minister onsiders appropriate to implement the multiculturalism policy of Canada" (Statutes of Canada, 1988b, c.31, s.5.(l)). The chairperson of the CMAC shall have submitted to the Minister a yearly report on the activities of the CMAC and ". . . on any other matter relating to the implementation of the multiculturalism policy of Canada that the chairman considers appropriate" (Statutes of Canada, 1988b, c.31, s.7. (3)).  The apparent lack of any definitive deployment strategy compromised the basis of a strong and well-defined Act.  On the same issue, the Task Force on Multiculturalism in Manitoba (1988, p.17) concluded as follows:
Stripped of its preamble, which recognizes the Charter of Rights and various international conventions and covenants, the Act does not provide any mechanism for compliance.  It encourages rather than enforces compliance.
Bill C-18, an Act to establish the Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship, was  the first official administrative measure taken by the Government on May 18, 1989 to strengthen the existing provisions in the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada, 1991, p. 1).  Under Bill C-18, the Minister of Multiculturalism and Citizenship shall "initiate, recommend, coordinate, implement and promote national policies and programs" relating to multiculturalism and citizenship, citizenship registration, and the participation of every citizen in the mainstream life of Canada within the context of the values inherent in Canadian citizenship, such as human rights, fundamental freedoms and related values (Statutes of Canada, 1991a, c.3, s.5, p.2).  As the second annual report on the operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act indicated, "interim arrangements announced by the Prime Minister in September 1988 remain in effect until this becomes law" (Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada, 1991, p.1).
On September 27, 1989 and February, 1990, the Minister of  State gave additional substance and form to the new directions of Canadian multiculturalism and citizenship by introducing in the House of Commons Bill C-37, an Act to establish the Canadian Heritage Languages Institute, and Bill C-63, an Act to establish the Canadian Race Relations Foundation (Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada, 1991).  The main purpose of the Canadian Heritage Languages Institute was said  to facilitate the acquisition, retention and use of heritage languages throughout Canada (Statutes of Canada, 1991b, c.7, s.4).   Other activities in furtherance of its purpose described in Section 4 of the legislation were to:
  • promote the learning of heritage languages;
  • develop quality heritage language instruction programs;
  • assist in production of new Canadian-oriented teaching materials;
  • assist in the development of heritage language learning standards; and
  • plan the dissemination of heritage language information, existing resources and research. 
The fiscal year in which the Canadian Heritage Languages Institute Act  was to come into force and for the next four fiscal years, the Minister of Finance was scheduled to  pay to the Institute the following sums, namely,
(a) eight hundred thousand dollars, to constitute the capital of an Endowment Fund to be invested and earn income to be expended for the purpose of the Institute; and (b) an additional five hundred thousand dollars, to be expended for the purpose of the Institute (Statutes of Canada, 1991b, c. 7, s. 22. (1) ).
The purpose of the Canadian Race Relations Foundation was to facilitate "the development, sharing and application of knowledge and expertise in order to contribute to the elimination of racism and all forms of racial discrimination in Canadian society" (Statutes of Canada, 1991c, c.8, s.4). To fulfill its purpose, Section 4 of the legislation required the Foundation to:
  • promote effective race relations training and development of professional standards;
  • act as a clearinghouse, providing information about existing race relations resources, policies, programs and research; and
  • collaborate with business, labour, community and other organizations, public institutions and governments, in eliminating all forms and manifestations of racial discrimination.
As Section 22 of this Act conveyed, the Foundation will receive a $24 million dollar endowment "for investment and the earning of income, which income may be expended for the purpose of the Foundation" (p.9). Half of the endowment sum was, paid on behalf of the Japanese Canadian community to bring to conclusion the Japanese Canadian Redress Agreement with the National Association of Japanese Canadians for abuses suffered during and after the Second World War (Statutes of Canada, 1991b, c.7). Between 1988-90, over 15,000 Japanese Canadians benefited  from the redress payments package (worth over $267.2 million), as was noted in the 1989-90 Department of the Secretary of State of Canada (1991, p.33, 51) annual report.  The Canadian Race Relations Foundation and the Canadian Heritage Languages Institute legislation was scheduled to  come into force with planned statutory funding "when fiscal circumstances permit" (Department of Finance Canada, 1992, p.131).
On November 25, 2005, An Act to amend the Official Languages Act (promotion of English and French), 2005, c. 41 was enacted “to enhance the enforceability of the Government of Canada’s obligations under Part VII” of the Official Languages Act. It renumbers subsection 41(1) of the Official Languages Act with three amendments. Essentially they speak to (1) the duty of federal institutions to ensure positive implementation measures of the commitments to the Official Languages Act, (2) granting the Governor in Council additional powers to make regulations regarding federal institutions that speak to this part of the Act, and (3) providing any person with an application for remedy under this part of the Act.
Bill C-331, An Act respecting the Internment of Persons of Ukrainian Origin Recognition Act (2005, c.52) acknowledged the first ever internment operations that took place on Canadian soil during World War I.   The Parliament of Canada has taken upon itself to express deep sorrow for that event and this enactment provides for further negotiations between specified Ukrainian-Canadian organizations and the Government of Canada in respect of measures deserving of that recognition. These may include, but are not limited to, the installation of commemorative plaques, public education initiatives which exhibit information concerning the internment of Ukrainians and their contribution to the development of Canada, a commemorative stamp or set of stamps, and the promotion of the shared values of multiculturalism, inclusion and mutual respect notwithstanding. The Ukrainian Canadian Congress, the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association and the Ukrainian Canadian Foundation of Taras Shevchenko are the three Ukrainian-Canadian organizations in the forefront of these negotiations. Other measures of the Act aim towards a better public understanding of (a) the consequences of ethnic, religious or racial intolerance and discrimination; and (b) the important role of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in the respect and promotion of the values it reflects and the rights and freedoms it guarantees. (See section 2.1) Section 6 of this Act affirms that these negotiations “shall not be interpreted as constituting an admission by Her Majesty in right of Canada of the existence of any legal obligation of Her Majesty in right of Canada to any person.” 
An Act to amend the Canadian Human Rights Act (Bill C-21, chapter 30, 2008) received Royal Assent in Her Majesty’s name on June 18, 2008. Bill C-21 repeals section 67 of the Canadian Human Rights Act and continues to protect the customary aboriginal and treaty rights of the First Nations peoples of Canada as recognized and affirmed by section 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982. A comprehensive review of the Act’s interpretive and non-derogation measures pertaining to Aboriginal authorities is required within five years after its enactment.
The Parliament of Canada recognized and honored the contribution that persons of Italian origin have made and continue to make to Canada in Bill C-302, the Italian Canadian Recognition and Restitution Act as passed by the House of Commons April 28, 2010.  They also apologized to Italian Canadians for designating them as “enemy aliens” and interning them during World War Two. During their internment, Italian Canadians labored without pay on various road construction projects and cleared land. Section 5 of this Act instructs the Canada Post Corporation to issue a series of stamps commemorating these and other infringements of their rights.  Bill C-302 also provides for appropriate redress for this action in the form of public education.  
To the author's knowledge, no other legislation from 1982 was relevant to this 30 year review.
Author Information:
Ihor Cap, Ph.D.
Ihor Cap is a member of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in Canada.
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Building the Canadian Mosaic: A Survey of Historical Developments, 1867-1920
Building the Canadian Mosaic: A Survey of Historical Developments, 1920-1982