The manner in which the learning-media transaction materializes depends largely upon what is understood and believed about instructional technology. According to the Commission on Instructional Technology this involves consideration of at least two major viewpoints or definitions. The Commission (Tickton, 1970, p.21) reports that:
In its more familiar sense, it means the media born of the communications revolution which can be used for instructional purposes alongside the teacher, textbook and blackboard. . ... In order to reflect present-day reality, the Commission has had to look at the pieces that make up instructional technology: television, films, overhead projectors, computers, and other items of "hardware" and "software" (to use the convenient jargon that distinguishes machines from programs). ... The second and less familiar definition of instructional technology goes beyond any particular medium or device. In this sense, instructional technology is more than the sum of its parts. It is a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication, and employing a combination of human and nonhuman resources to bring about more effective instruction.The general notion of educators having always been dependent on the physical manifestations of technology in enhancing or improving instruction enjoys a long history (Anderson, 1962; Reiser, 1987; Saettler, 1968). The first definition mentioned above supports this general notion. More often than not, this viewpoint assumes that media other than the instructor's lecture and printed text will not serve as the primary vehicle of dispersing information or subject matter to learners (Hooper, 1969, p.246). Alternatively, or in addition to the above, instruction may be rendered complete once the learners "...can hand back such information" to those who guide them (Bender & Boucher,1977, p.4).
Here is an example of how one investigator's evaluative research study was implemented toward just such an effort. The chief elements directed toward the improvement of his learning or change effort, considered evaluating, (a) multicultural behavior change, (b) the learner, and (c) the instructional situation. Hence, these three elements were included in the general design for the learning-media transaction, as shown in Figure 1 (Cap, 1995, p. 8). Read about it in the Design for Evaluating Multicultural Behavior Change article.
Author: Ihor Cap, Ph.D.
|About the Author: Ihor Cap is Training Development Coordinator with Apprenticeship Manitoba. He holds an Education Specialist degree and Ph.D. in Comprehensive Vocational Education from the Florida State University and a Masters of Education in Instructional Technology from the University of Manitoba. Ihor is also a member of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in Canada.|
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Cap, Ihor. (1995). A study of the usefulness and effectiveness of a self-instructional print module on multicultural behaviour change in apprentices in Manitoba. A dissertation submitted to the Department of Educational Leadership in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The Florida State University, College of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
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This article first appeared in Feb 7, 2009 in http://articlesandblogs.ezreklama.com.